disease conditions
Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy occurs once the blood vessel walls have been damaged by the effects of raised blood sugar.
Retinal damage is caused either by leakage from damaged blood vessel walls, poor oxygen delivery to the retinal cells and inflammation resulting from these mechanisms. In most eyes it is a variable combination of these mechanisms. 

The presence of diabetic retinopathy is directly related to the duration of having had diabetes (50% chance after ten years, 90% chance after twenty years). The severity of the diabetic retinopathy is affected by the level of diabetes control, blood pressure, cholesterol and smoking. 

Diabetic retinopathy can be treated. Treatment is best delivered early in the course of the condition. Early treatment is usually medical in nature whereas more advanced disease may require surgical intervention. The presence of visual symptoms is indicative of disease which has progressed and which may require treatment on a priority basis.

The ideal time to detect diabetic retinopathy is before symptoms have appeared. Regular photo-screening is the best way of early detection. The Retinography network aims to facilitate access to photo-screening for both patients and doctors.

Artificial Intelligence for diabetes is FDA validated.


Glaucoma is a common eye condition which, if detected late or neglected, is potentially blinding.
Glaucoma is a disorder of the optic nerve, the primary risk factor for which is a high pressure in the eye.
The first detectable changes are structural changes to the nerve – which are detectable on photo-screening.
As the disease progresses the function of the nerve becomes affected, with tunnel vision. If not stopped, the tunnel gets progressively smaller until blindness results. Glaucoma cannot be cured but it can be controlled.
Damage which has occurred is irreversible and therefore early detection is very important.
Photo-screening has the potential to detect structural damage to the nerve.

Artificial Intelligence for glaucoma is currently being validated.

Age related Macular Degeneration

Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common condition affecting more mature eyes. 

Two patterns of AMD occur –  a dry and a wet form. Treatment of the dry form is very limited, whereas more interventional treatment is available for the wet form. The major risk factors for developing AMD are genetic (a positive family history), high sun exposure through the course of one’s life, advancing age and smoking.

The first changes to occur are structural, with the build up of a substance named lipofuscin within the retina.
These deposits are termed drusen. Drusen can be detected by photo-screening.
Early detection may be of benefit in terms of managing risk factors.

Artificial Intelligence for AMD is currently being validated.